As part of my editorial series covering all things Low FODMAP diet, I am sharing a list of foods you can eat, those you should avoid and all the bits that fall in the grey area and how to navigate that. This low FODMAP diet food list is a good starting point and I will provide resources for where to get more detailed information.
If you’re not familiar with the basics of the low FODMAP diet, make sure to check out this introductory post. Below, you will find a list of foods to eat, avoid or consume in smaller amounts. You can jump directly to the part you’re interested in:
- Traffic light system by Monash University
- Red foods to avoid on a Low FODMAP diet
- High FODMAP fruit
- High FODMAP vegetables
- Orange foods to include in small amounts
- Green low FODMAP foods to eat freely
- Low FODMAP vegetables
- Low FODMAP fruit
- Low FODMAP FAQs
You might also like: Check out these low FODMAP Dinner ideas
TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM
The best way to navigate low and high FODMAP foods is to use the handy ‘traffic light’ system developed by Monash University. It’s pretty simple: green foods are low-FODMAP, yellow foods are moderate-FODMAP, and red foods are high-FODMAP.
During the first stages of a low-FODMAP protocol, you will only want to eat green foods. Later down the line, you will introduce yellow foods. The Monash FODMAP app makes identifying these foods easier than ever.
The app also includes lists that have specific foods and brands you’ll see in the aisles of your grocery store. If you’re ever confused about a packaged food with more than a single ingredient, you can use their food guide and search function to ensure you’re going for the green.
I have compiled a thorough list of LOW FODMAP diet foods you can eat. Before we dive into those, here is a quick recap of RED and ORANGE foods to avoid.
RED Foods To Avoid On a Low Fodmap Diet
High FODMAP Fruit:
- Apples (all fresh and dried varieties)
- Apricots (all fresh and dried varieties)
- Banana (ripe)
- Berries: blackberries, blueberries and raspberries
- Dates, figs, Goji berries, prunes and raisins
- Honeydew melon
- Nectarines, peaches and plums
- Plus, agave and agave derived syrup.
High FODMAP vegetables:
- Beetroot, fresh
- Cruciferous: broccolini, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage (savoy only)
- Butternut squash
- Celery – greater than 5cm of the stalk
- Chilli (ancho, chipotle)
- Corn (sweet corn, canned)
- Garlic including powdered garlic and spice blends containing powdered garlic
- Leek bulb (white part), mange tout (snow peas)
- Onions and onion powder, scallions/spring onions (bulb /white part), shallots
- Fermented cabbage e.g. sauerkraut, kimchi, mixed vegetables or pickled vegetables(just in case there are any of the above);
- Taro, yucca root;
- Plus, mushrooms (all varieties besides oyster mushrooms).
Please note that with many of these vegetables, consuming them in small amounts might not be a problem! I have listed those in the low FODMAP list below with the recommended portion sizes.
All legumes should be avoided: such as black beans, Black-eyed peas, broad beans, butter beans, Fava beans, soybeans, lima, navy, mung and kidney, baked beans and falafel, split peas, and peas (sugar snap, snow, canned, and frozen).
Nuts: cashews, pistachios
Bread: white bread, whole wheat, grain, or meal bread.
Also avoid regular pasta, couscous and other wheat/grain products unless listed in the low FODMAP list below.
ORANGE Foods To Include In Small Amounts
You can have these in small amounts:
- Cantaloupe (rockmelon)
- Zucchini (courgette)
- Green bell pepper (capsicum)
- Sun-dried tomatoes
- Wakame (seaweed)
- Balsamic vinegar
- Coconut (fresh)
- Milk chocolate
- Pesto sauce
- Chickpeas (not sprouted) and lentils (red or green)
GREEN LOW FODMAP DIET Foods YOU CAN EAT
Beef, chicken, eggs, foie gras, kangaroo, lamb, pork, prosciutto and other cold cuts/deli meat / cold meats such as ham and turkey breast, turkey, Quorn (mince). With processed meat, check the ingredients for what else is added.
Plus, all seafood – fresh and canned (check what else is added though, such as onion or garlic). Enjoy salmon, prawns, oysters, mussels, cod, haddock and tuna.
NUTS & SEEDS SEEDS
Chia seeds, egusi seeds, flax seeds, hemp seeds, poppy seeds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds. Brazil nuts, chestnuts, macadamia nuts, tigernuts, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, walnuts. These are all great sources of healthy fats, protein and fibre.
Pulses, legumes, etc.
- Lentils (Le Puy)
- Edamame (soybeans)
Fats and oils
As a rule, most fats and oils are FODMAP-friendly and shouldn’t confuse you too much. This is because they contain few to no carbohydrates. Opt for healthy oils like avocado oil, coconut oil, olive oil and small amounts of sesame oil. Avoid vegetable, sunflower, soybean, canola oils – not because of FODMAPs but because of their toxic fat profile.
LOW FODMAP VEGETABLES
When it comes to vegetables, the amount of FODMAPs often depends on the portion size. While some veggies can be eaten freely without worrying about FODMAPS at all, others like broccoli or butternut squash can be consumed in smaller amounts. Below is a list of low FODMAP vegetables you can eat freely and those you have to watch maximum portion sizes with (as per Monash University app).
VEGETABLES TO ENJOY FREELY
- Bamboo shoots (canned or fresh)
- Bean sprouts
- Red bell pepper (capsicum)
- Chili pepper (green)
- Corn (baby, canned)
- Ginger root
- Leafy greens/lettuces: Arugula (rocket), Butter lettuce, endive, iceberg lettuce, Red leaf lettuce, Romaine lettuce, watercress
- Dark leafy greens: collard greens, spinach (English) and Swiss chard
- Mushrooms (oyster)
- Green onions (scallions, tops only)
- Root vegetables: carrots, parsnips, potatoes (white), rutabaga (swedes), yams
- Spaghetti squash
- Tomatillo, tomato (Canned), tomato (Common)
- Water chestnuts
WATCH PORTION SIZE
Be mindful of combining vegetables as it is easy to have too many from this list, taking you over the safe FODMAP threshold. For example, having a meal with Brussels sprouts, broccoli and squash in one sitting could tip you over the edge and cause digestive distress.
- Alfalfa Sprouts (2 cups)
- Artichoke hearts (1/2 cup)
- Beets (2 slices)
- Bell pepper (green, 1/2 cup)
- Bok choy (1 cup)
- Broccoli florets (3/4 cup)
- Broccoli stalks (1/3 cup)
- Broccolini (1/2 cup)
- Brussels sprouts (2)
- Butternut squash (1/3 cup)
- Cabbage (common white & red, 3/4 cup), cabbage savoy (1/2 cup), cabbage Chinese (1 cup)
- Celeriac (1/4)
- Chicory (leaves,1/2 cup)
- Chili pepper (red, 1)
- Daikon radish (1/2 cup)
- Edamame (1/2 cup)
- Eggplant (1 cup)
- Fennel (bulb or leaves, 1/2 cup),
- Green beans (15 beans)
- Green peas (canned, drained, 1/2 cup)
- Jicama (1/2 cup)
- Leek (green leaves, 2/3 cup)
- Okra (7.5 pods)
- Radicchio lettuce (2 cups)
- Snow peas (5 pods), sugar snap peas (4 pods)
- Sweet Potato (1/2 cup)
- Pumpkin (Canned, 1/3 cup), squash (Pattypan, 2),
- Spinach (baby, 1+1/2 cups),
- Taro (1/2 cup)
- Tomatoes (cherry, 5)
- Zucchini (1/3 cup).
Low FODMAP Fruit
Many fruits are FODMAP-friendly. However, unlike most elimination diets, there are a few invisible factors at play making others very high in FODMAPS – sorbitol and excess fructose. These fruits are low in both, giving them the green light.
- Banana (unripe) or banana chips, plantains
- Citrus fruits: clementines, lemons, limes and oranges
- Coconut (shredded)
- Dragon fruit
Low FODMAP bread choices
Try buckwheat, gluten-free bread, millet, oatmeal/flour, pumpernickel bread, quinoa, rye bread, spelt, sourdough bread.
Low FODMAP pasta options and alternatives
Try chickpea pasta, gluten-free pasta, quinoa pasta, spelt sourdough pasta, wheat sourdough pasta.
Low FODMAP cheese
Most cheese is low FODMAP due to its high-fat content and low carb content. High amounts of ricotta or paneer can be triggering, but almost all cheeses are a green light especially in a low to moderate dose.
Brie cheese, cream cheese, goat cheese, gruyere cheese, halloumi cheese, Havarti cheese, manchego cheese, Monterey jack cheese, mozzarella cheese, Pecorino Romano cheese, Swiss cheese.
- Paneer cheese (consume less than 2 cups)
- Ricotta cheese (consume less than ¾ cup)
Low FODMAP cereal options
With cereal, it is important to refer to the app which will list specific brand names of cereal or refer to the individual ingredients. Considering the abundance of commercial cereals, it’s really on a case-by-case basis. However, there are a few safe bets…if carbs or sugar are not something you’re trying to avoid.
- Corn flakes, Frosted Flakes (not super healthy though), Rice Puffs, Rice Krispies, Special K are okay.
Low FODMAP sweeteners
Brown sugar, coconut sugar, icing sugar (powdered sugar), maple syrup, palm sugar, raw sugar, rice malt syrup, stevia, white sugar. Avoid agave syrup and honey.
Low FODMAP baking ingredients
All sweeteners mentioned above, arrowroot flour, buckwheat flour, butter, cacao powder, cocoa powder, coconut flour, coconut milk powder, cornflour, corn starch, dark chocolate, eggs, gluten-free flour, green banana flour, millet flour, quinoa flour, rice flour, sorghum flour, spelt flour, teff flour. Avoid too much almond meal.
Low FODMAP condiments
Barbeque sauce, capers, chimichurri sauce (without garlic), chutney (check for onion), fish sauce, horseradish, jam and jellies of low-FODMAP fruits e.g. raspberry, strawberry, tamarind, mayonnaise, mint jelly and sauce, mustard, peanut butter, salsa verde (without garlic), salsa (without garlic/onion), shrimp paste, soy sauce, sriracha (low amounts), sweet and sour sauce, tomato sauce and paste, Vegemite, vinegar (all varieties except balsamic), wasabi, Worcestershire sauce. Some of these might contain a little garlic or onion however if the amount used is small (e.g. 1 tbsp), these might not cause any symptoms.
Low FODMAP drinks
You can still have coffee and alcohol while avoiding high-FODMAP foods – just make sure to double-check. The same goes for tea, but most varieties are going to be perfectly fine. You may want to avoid certain herbal teas and investigate individual ingredients to determine the FODMAP content.
Almond milk, beer, coffee (black), cranberry juice, drinking chocolate, Espresso, gin, hemp milk, kvass, lactose-free milk, macadamia milk, rice milk, sweetened condensed milk, tea (black, dandelion, green, liquorice, peppermint, rooibos, white), vodka, wheatgrass juice/powder, whiskey, wine (most varieties).
LOW FODMAP FOODS FAQs
What can I have for breakfast?
Low FODMAP breakfast ideas can be quite easy with substitutions. You will want to watch out for additives and preservatives in packaged breakfast meats. Otherwise, you can indulge in your favourite protein sources such as sausage, bacon, and ham.
Eggs are low-FODMAP so you can continue getting your protein that way as well. If you are fond of toast or cereal, you simply want to check your favourite brands on the Monash FODMAP app or switch to millet, oat, sourdough, or otherwise gluten-free varieties. In addition, you can add many fruits and veggies to boost nutrition and fibre. Finally, you can always enjoy oatmeal with various additives including low-FODMAP seeds such as flax, chia, and sunflower seeds. And, sourdough toast is still on the menu!
Are sweet potatoes low FODMAP?
Yes, sweet potatoes and yams are low-FODMAP in addition to white potatoes. With regular sweet potato varieties, it is advised to have moderate serving sizes (> ⅔ cup) as larger amounts contain mannitol which can be an irritant. Yam servings should be limited to under two cups. In large amounts, there is a high amount of fructan.
Is peanut butter low FODMAP?
Yes! Peanut butter is a low FODMAP food. Almond butter, on the other hand, is not.
Is almond milk low FODMAP?
Yes, almond milk is a low FODMAP food. However, almonds are not. Avoid almond milk with a high almond quantity. Most store-bought brands are fine.
What can I use instead of garlic and onions in recipes?
Instead of garlic and onion, you’ll want to use substitutes to create the same depth of flavour the low FODMAP way. One idea is infused olive oil. Due to the small amount of onion or garlic left in the oil, you can still enjoy your favourite flavours this way. Other ideas for enhancing taste is using complex or umami additions such as fish sauce, interesting spice and herb blends like Za’atar, seeds, and chilis. Lastly, you can add stock and bouillon (many powders are low FODMAP-friendly) to give your meals a richer and more savoury taste. PS. the green tops of onions and leeks and chives are great lower FODMAP swaps.
Low FODMAP protein powder?
Some options for protein powder include brown rice protein, pea protein isolate, egg white powder, and many whey-based protein powders. Whey protein isolate is a green light food while other whey mixes or products may have varying levels of FODMAPs. Soy protein can also be low FODMAP, but the particular content will vary with brands and how concentrated the source is. The more concentrated, the better. Soy protein powders may be treated as yellow food for this reason.
Is spinach low FODMAP?
Yes, English spinach is a low FODMAP food; baby spinach should be limited to 1+1/2 cups per serving.
Are carrots low FODMAP?
Yes, carrots are a low FODMAP food.
What are low FODMAP nuts I can eat?
Low FODMAP nuts include Brazil nuts, chestnuts, macadamia nuts, tiger nuts, peanuts, pine nuts and walnuts.
Is popcorn low FODMAP?
Yes, popcorn is a low FODMAP food.
Is sourdough bread low FODMAP?
Yes, sourdough is a great (and tasty) low FODMAP bread choice.
Is beer low FODMAP?
Good news! Beer is low FODMAP so you can still sip your favourite brews.
Is pea protein low FODMAP?
Yes, pea protein isolate (found in protein powders and many vegetarian/vegan meat substitutes) is a low FODMAP food.
Is oatmeal low FODMAP?
Oats are a low FODMAP grain.
Is coconut milk low FODMAP?
Coconut milk powder and canned coconut milk are low FODMAP. Some other brands of coconut milk typically found in cartons may be moderate FODMAP foods. Mostly, however, this is a non-issue.
Is quinoa low FODMAP?
Yes, quinoa is a low FODMAP food.
The low FODMAP approach can be a powerful healing protocol for those with IBS, SIBO, or other digestive issues. It goes without saying that low FODMAP is a lot less simple than some other elimination diets. There is much more nuance and less eliminating entire food groups when following this diet. Therefore, it requires a lot more effort. Fortunately, there is an app for that, and you can always bookmark or print the lists on this page for easier weekly shopping trips.
Do you have any other questions about low FODMAP foods? Leave a comment below!